B.Tech Aerospace Engineering
B.Tech Aerospace Engineering
- About the Programme
- Vision & Mission
- PEO,PO & PSO
- Career Opportunities
- Our Faculty
- International Visits
- HU ALSIM
- Supersonic Wind Tunnel
- Research and Development
- Student Achievements
- Curriculum & Syllabus
- Prominent Alumnus
About the Programme
The Department of Aeronautical Engineering was established in the year 1996. We provide quality technical education in the field of Aeronautical and Aerospace Engineering. The B.Tech programme offered by the department is accredited by the National Board of Accreditation (NBA), National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) and Institute of Engineering and Technology (IET).This programme has been designed to provide quality education for the undergraduate and postgraduate students through the blend of advanced laboratories and experienced faculties in the field of Aircraft Design, Aircraft Structures, Aerodynamics, Aircraft Propulsion, Aircraft Systems, Avionics, UAV, Aircraft Maintenance, Satellite Technology and the Advanced Materials. Syllabus is regularly revised to meet the industry demands in the Aviation, Space Exploration and Defence Sector. The department encompasses various types of Aircraft, Flight Simulators and Centre of Excellence that can provide real-time experience in handling and familiarizing with the Aircrafts. We take pride in generating the maximum Aeronautical and Aerospace engineers in the country. Many of our alumni work as Engineers, Scientists and faculty in esteemed organizations at the National and International level.
Duration : 4 Years
Vision & Mission
To excel in education, research and innovation in Aeronautical and Aerospace engineering
- M1: To provide conducive academic environment through well designed curriculum, teaching and learning process imparting high quality education for research and innovation.
- M2: To provide hands on training on state-of-the-art technologies related to Aerospace engineering.
- M3: To impart technical, leadership skills and life-long learning embedded with ethical values and social relevance.
Program Educational Objectives
The Program Educational Objectives (PEOs) of the graduates from Aerospace Engineering are listed below:
- PEO1:Graduates will be competent to use their technical knowledge in solving engineering problems in Aerodynamics, Propulsion, Structures and Space dynamics.
- PEO2:Graduates will demonstrate their skills in multi-disciplinary projects utilizing modern tools as an individual and as a team with ethics.
- PEO3:Graduates will engage in aspiring careers, entrepreneurship or pursue higher studies.
Program Specific Outcomes
On completion of the B. Tech. Aerospace Engineering, the graduates will be able to
- PSO1:Able to identify, formulate and solve engineering problems with the potential to design an Aerospace system, component, or process to meet desired needs within socio economic and ethical values
- PSO2:Able to use the techniques, skills, and modern engineering tools necessary for Aerospace engineering practices
Program outcomes (POs)
(To be achieved by the student after every semester/year/and at the time of graduation) At the end of this program, graduates will be able to
- PO1:Engineering knowledge: Apply the knowledge of mathematics, science, engineering fundamentals, and an engineering specialization to the solution of complex engineering problems.
- PO2: Problem analysis: Identify, formulate, review research literature, and analyze complex engineering problems reaching substantiated conclusions using first principles of mathematics, natural sciences, and engineering sciences.
- PO3: Design/development of solutions: Design solutions for complex engineering problems and design system components or processes that meet the specified needs with appropriate consideration for the public health and safety, and the cultural, societal, and environmental considerations.
- PO4: Conduct investigations of complex problems: Use research-based knowledge and research methods including design of experiments, analysis and interpretation of data, and synthesis of the information to provide valid conclusions.
- PO5: Modern tool usage: Create, select, and apply appropriate techniques, resources, and modern engineering and IT tools including prediction and modeling to complex engineering activities with an understanding of the limitations.
- PO6: The engineer and society: Apply reasoning informed by the contextual knowledge to assess societal, health, safety, legal and cultural issues and the consequent responsibilities relevant to the professional engineering practice.
- PO7: Environment and sustainability: Understand the impact of the professional engineering solutions in societal and environmental contexts, and demonstrate the knowledge of, and need for sustainable development.
- PO8: Ethics: Apply ethical principles and commit to professional ethics and responsibilities and norms of the engineering practice.
- PO9: Individual and team work: Function effectively as an individual, and as a member or leader in diverse teams, and in multidisciplinary settings.
- PO10: Communication: Communicate effectively on complex engineering activities with the engineering community and with society at large, such as, being able to comprehend and write effective reports and design documentation, make effective presentations, and give and receive clear instructions.
- PO11: Project management and finance: Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the engineering and management principles and apply these to one’s own work, as a member and leader in a team, to manage projects and in multidisciplinary environments.
- PO12: Life-long learning: Recognize the need for, and have the preparation and ability to engage in independent and life-long learning in the broadest context of technological change.
Placement cell of the Hindustan Institute of Technology & Science facilitates employment opportunities for the graduates by bringing in the reputed MNC’s and private firms to the campus every year for the campus interviews. Placement cell also organizes personality development workshops, aptitude training, group discussion sessions and mock interviews to the students of the pre-final year, final year undergraduate and postgraduate programs to develop their communication skills and soft skills required to ace the interview.
After graduation, the students can expect start up positions in the MNC’s, private firms in the aeronautical and aerospace domain, R & D organizations, Research Institutions, Airlines and Airport in the field of maintenance. Typical jobs are listed as follows:
- Stress Analysis Engineer
- Product Support Engineer
- Landing Gear System Engineer
- Graduate Engineering Trainee
- Design Engineer
- Quality Assurance Engineer
- Manufacturing Engineer
- CFD Engineer
- Engine Controls Engineer
Our graduates have been part of the various national and international organizations:
|1||Dr. K. Ramajeyathilagam||Senior Professor|
|2||Dr. Parthasarathy Vasanthakumar||Professor & Head|
|3||Mr. T. V. Nagarajan||Professor|
|4||Dr. J. Ashok Babu||Professor|
|6||Dr. D. Raja Joseph||Associate Professor|
|7||Dr. S. Sathish||Associate Professor|
|8||Dr. P. Saravanan||Associate Professor|
|9||Dr. Charulatha||Associate Professor|
|10||Dr. N. Purushothaman||Associate Professor|
|11||Dr. M. Chandrasekar||Associate Professor|
|12||Dr. G. Balaji||Assistant Professor (S.G.)|
|13||Dr. Rohith I.J.||Assistant Professor (S.G.)|
|14||Dr. David N||Assistant Professor (S.G.)|
|15||Flt Lt R Giri||Assistant Professor (S.G)|
|16||Mr. K. Nandakumar||Assistant Professor (S.G) & ACOE|
|17||Ms. Kanupriya Jhanji||Assistant Professor (SS)|
|18||Mr. J. Jensin Joshua||Assistant Professor (SS)|
|19||Dr. A. Revanth Reddy||Assistant Professor (SS)|
|20||Dr. R. Sarweswaran||Assistant Professor (SS)|
|21||Mr. S. Karthikeyan||Assistant Professor|
|22||Mr. V. Paulson||Assistant Professor|
|23||Ms. T. Sivagangai||Assistant Professor|
|24||Mr. M. Senbagan||Assistant Professor|
|24||Mr. M. Senbagan||Assistant Professor|
|25||Ms. Y. Sharon Ruth||Assistant Professor|
|26||Ms. T. Archana||Assistant Professor|
|27||Dr. K. Jayaraman||Adjunct Faculty|
|28||Mr. D. Gowri Shankar||Adjunct Faculty|
|Sl.No||Name of the institute for student exchange programme||Topics||Type of MOU|
|1||Institut Polytechnique Des Sciences Avancées (IPSA) France||Aircraft Design and Propulsion||Student Exchange, Higher studies|
|2||Moscow Aviation Institute, Russia (MAI)||Aircraft Design, Dynamics of Flight and Control, Aerodynamics||Student Exchange, Joint Conferences|
|3||École Nationale De L Aviation Civile(ENAC), France.||Control Systems, Aerodynamics, avionics||Student Exchange, Joint Conferences|
Integrated Avioincs Lab
Aircraft System Lab
Aircraft Propulsion Lab
Aircraft Simulation Lab
Aircraft System Lab
Non Destructive Testing Lab
Aircraft Structure Lab
Fatique & Fracture Research Lab
Structural Design Lab
Space Propulsion Lab
About the HU ALSIM
Orient Flights in technical partnership with ALSIM began the flight simulator training in 2010 with the purchase of India’s first ALSIM Simulator, the ALSIM AL50. ALSIM, based in France, is one of the leading Flight Simulator Manufactures in the World. ALSIM’s constant process of evolving their products over the years has enabled them to offer customers with advanced aviation training devices. The development of their devices and services is a continuous process in close collaboration with their customers and their very own ATO (Approved Training Organization).
Description of Supersonic Wind Tunnel:
The open-blow down type supersonic wind tunnel at the Aircraft Hangar has arectangular test section of 50 mm x 37.5 mm x 100 mm with a test speed range up to Mach 2.5. The operating pressure is 12.5 barand blow down time is 20-30seconds. The tunnel is equipped with a Schlieren system and a high speed camera. Additional instrumentation includes transducer for pressure distribution measurements across the nozzle using Data Acquisition System (DAQ).
Technical Specifications of Supersonic Wind Tunnel:
- Supersonic Wind Tunnel Test Section Size of 50mm x 37.5 mm x 100 mm (BxWxL).
- Test section materials: Optical window glass, thickness -14mm
- Supersonic Wind tunnel Test Section Mach Number – 2.5 and Blowdown time is 20-30 sec.
- 197/127 Diameter / 90 Strokes of 15 HP x 2 Nos – Air Compressor.
- Storage Tank Capacity of 5 m3 (1500 litre – 2 tanks and 2000 litre – 1 tank) Blowdown timing for 5m3 is 30-35 min.
- 100 cfm Drier / Oil and Air filter.
- Nozzle of 6.36 mm x throat x 50mm width (Aluminum alloy materials)
- Schlieren System: Telescope Astronomical Concave Mirror, Aluminum coated with Silicon Oxide protective layer. 6” dia, 15mm thickness, focal length of 1000mm.
- Test Timing – 25 Sec
- Settling Chamber and Blowdown timing for Storage tank capacity of 5m3 is 30-35 minutes
- DSLR Camera – Nikon 50mm to 300mm focal length VR lens (Standard)
- Ball Valve (1 ¼”) for opening, Non return valve to fill the reservoir,
- Ball Valve (1/4”) for drain the reservoir and 3/8’ valve for filters.
- 2 Tripods for mirror and 1 illumination lamp.
- Pressure and temperature measurement using Lab VIEW software.
Shock captured for Airfoil model
Shock captured for Blunt surface model
Shock captured for double wedge model
- Pressure distribution along a convergent-divergent nozzle using pressure transducer.
- Demonstration of Schlieren method
- Observation of shock flow patterns around the blunt nose cone model with the aid of Schlierensystem.
- Observation of shock flow patterns around the single and double delta nose cone model with the aid of Schlierensystem.
- Observation of shock flow patterns around the blunt airfoil nose cone model with the aid of Schlierensystem.
Research & Development
Faculty Intellectual Property Rights (Patents)
|Sl.No||Title of the Invention||Application Number||Date of Filing/Publication||Investigator|
|1||SYSTEM FOR PREDICTION OF FLY-BY NEAR EARTH OBJECTS||3253/CHE/2014||10/8/2018||Mr. Kirubakaran PSB|
|2||BLACK BOX ACOUSTIC SIGNAL TRANSMITTER||201741011702A||05/10/2018||Mr. Kirubakaran PSB|
|3||HYBRID WING CONCEPT FOR INCREASED UAV PERFORMANCE||3255/CHE/2014||11/08/2014||Dr. Dalbir Singh|
|4||SELF STARTING SCRAMJET ENGINE||3248/CHE/2014||2/07/2014||Mr. G. Dinesh Kumar|
|6||INNOVATIVE HYBRID VEHICLE||3247/CHE/2014||2/07/2014||Mr. G. Dinesh Kumar|
|7||INBUILT STARTING SYSTEM FOR RAMJET ENGINE||910/CHE/2013||22/03/2013||Mr. G. Dinesh Kumar|
|8||DRAWN-OUT PROP ENGINE (TECHNOLOGY)||336/CHE/2012||11/06/2012||Mr.R.Rajesh|
|7||TURBO RAMJET||1620/CHE/2011||10/11/2011||Mr. Balaji. D|
|9||BYPASS AIR CONTROL MECHANISM FOR HYBRID ENGINE||884/CHE/2011||20/08/2011||Mr. Balaji. D|
|S.No||Project Title||Consultants||Funding Agency||Date of Sanction||Amount (Rs. In Lakhs)||Duration||Present Status|
|1||Evaluation of numerical bird model parameters through dynamic test of bird projectile||Dr. K. Ramajeyathilagam
|GTRE, DRDO||08.09.2015||9.66||18 months||Completed|
|2||Estimation of shock levels and its impact on the underwater axisymmteric bodies due to water entry and pyro shock||Dr.K.Ramajeyathilagam
|NSTL, DRDO||>6.65||6 months||In progress|
|Sl. No.||Year||Description||Impact Factor (as per JCR)|
|1||2020||John, J., Nandagopalan, P., Baek, S.W., Cho, S.J., “Hypergolic ignition delay studies of solidified ethanol fuel with hydrogen peroxide for hybrid rockets”, Combustion and Flame, 212, 205-215||1.730|
|2||S. Manigandan, R. Sarweswaran, P. Booma Devi, Yasin Sohret, Andrii Kondratiev, S. Venkatesh, M. Rakesh Vimal, J. Jensin Joshua, “Comparative study of nanoadditives TiO2, CNT, Al2O3, CuO and CeO2 on reduction of diesel engine emission operating on hydrogen fuel blends”, Fuel, 262.||5.578|
|3||2020||Mohammad Asim, Mohd T. Paridah, M. Chandrasekar, et al. “Thermal stability of natural fibers and their polymer composites” Iranian Polymer Journal, 29, 625-648.||1.707|
|4||2020||RPS Praba and K. Ramajeyathilagam, “Numerical investigations on the large deformation behaviour of ring stiffened cylindrical shell subjected to underwater explosion” Applied Ocean Research, 101.||2.890|
|5||2020||S. N. Mahottamananda, N. P. Kadiresh, Y. Pal, “Regression Rate Characterization of HTPB- Paraffin Based Solid Fuels for Hybrid Rocket” Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics, 45||1.544|
|6||2020||Dilip A Shah, GC Vishnu Kumar “Study on the effect of leading and trailing-edge serrations on flat-plate broadband noise” Noise & Vibration Worldwide, 51(3), 44-51.||0.33|
|7||2020||M. Chandrasekar, T. Senthil Muthu Kumar et al. “Performance of Sisal/Hemp Bio-based Epoxy Composites Under Accelerated Weathering” Journal of Polymers and Environment, Article in Press https://doi.org/10.1007/s10924-020-01904-7||2.572|
|8||2020||Sivakumar Subha, Vadapalli Naga Venkata Sairam and Yash Pal “Effect of Zr/Gnp hybrid filler on thermal and ablation properties of carbon‐epoxy composites” Polymer Composites, Article in Press https://doi.org/10.1002/pc.25854||2.265|
|9||2020||Yash Pal Nikita A, Neethu A, Madhumitha, “Fabrication and characterization of gallium nitride thin film deposited on a sapphire substrate for photoelectrochemical water splitting applications” Optik, Article in Press https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijleo.2020.165410||2.187|
|10||2019||JJerin John, K Ardhianto, Purushothaman Nandagopalan and Seung Wook Baek. “Thermoreversible gelation and self-assembly behavior of dibenzylidene sorbitol in ternary solvent mixtures”, Colloid and Polymer Science, 297, 493-502.||1.536|
|11||2018||S Subha, D Singh, PS Venkatanarayanan, N Kavitha, “Experimental Investigation of Mechanical, Thermal and Ablation Performance of ZrO2/SiC Modified C‐Ph Composites” International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology, 16, 61-77,||1.762|
|12||2018||C Ganesan, PS Joanna, “Modeling the residual strength and fatigue life of carbon fiber composites under constant amplitude loading” Mechanics of Advanced Materials and Structures, 27(21), 1-14.||2.645|
|13||2018||J Jefferson Andrew, V Arumugam, C Ramesh, “Acoustic emission characterization of local bending behavior for adhesively bonded hybrid external patch repaired glass/epoxy composite laminates” Structural Health Monitoring, 18(3), 739-756.||4.870|
|14||2018||R. Santhanakrishnan, Stanley Samlal, A. Joseph Stanley & J. Jayalatha “Impact study on sandwich panels with and without stitching” Advanced Composite Materials, 27 (2), 163-182.||1.71|
|15||2018||C Ganesan and PS Joanna, “Fatigue Life And Residual Strength Prediction of GFRP Composites: An Experimental And Theoretical Approach” Latin American Journal of Solids And Structures, 15(7), 1-16||1.158|
|16||2018||Sankar A., Natarajan S., Merzouki T., Ganapathi M. “Nonlinear Dynamic Thermal Buckling of Sandwich Spherical and Conical Shells with CNT Reinforced Face sheets” International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics, 17(9)||1.61|
|17||2018||Subha S and D. Singh, “Thermal, Mechanical and Ablation Properties of Carbon-Epoxy Based Composites Reinforced by Zirconia Coated Graphene Nanoplatelets” Materials Research Express, 5(1).||
|18||2017||Yash Pal and V Ravikumar, “Physical and Ballistic Characterization of Aluminum loaded Paraffin Hybrid Rocket Fuels” Energy & Fuels, 31(9), 10133-10143.||3.021|
|19||2017||Yash Pal and V Ravikumar, “Thermal Decomposition Study of Paraffin- Based Hybrid Rocket Fuel containing Metallic Aluminium and Boron additives,” Thermochimica Acta, 655(1), 63-75||2.091|
|20||2017||G. C. Vishnu Kumar and D. A. Shah, “Aerodynamics of Flapping Wings for Vertical Takeoff” Journal of Applied Fluid Mechanics, 10(6), 1689-1697||1.09|
|21||2017||Anish S and N. Sitaram, “Computational study of radial gap effect between impeller and diffuser on the unsteadiness of vaned diffuser in a centrifugal compressor” Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, 31(11), 5291-5298||1.194|
|22||2016||A Sankar, S El-Borgi, M Ganapathi K Ramajeyathilagam, “Parametric instability of thick doubly curved CNT reinforced composite sandwich panels under in-plane periodic loads using higher-order shear deformation theory” Journal of Vibration and control, 24(10), 1927-1950||1.75|
|23||2016||Gopalakrishnan M; Muthu S; Subramanian R; Santhanakrishnan R; Karthigeyan L M. “Tensile properties study of E-Glass/Epoxy laminate and π/4 Quasi-Isotropic E-Glass/Epoxy laminate” Polymers and Polymer Composites, 24(6), 429-446||1.14|
|24||2014||A.Sankar, S.Natarajan, M.Haboussi, K. Ramajeyathilagam and M.Ganapathi, “Panel flutter characteristics of sandwich plates with CNT reinforced face sheets using an accurate higher-order theory” Journal of Fluids and Structures, 50(1), 376-391||2.021|
|25||2014||Anand Venkatachari, S. Natarajan, K. Ramajeyathilagam and M. Ganapathi, “Assessment of certain higher-order structural models based on global approach for bending analysis of curvilinear composite laminates” Composite Structures, 118(1), 548-559||3.318|
National Conference Publications
International Conference Publications
Faculty Journal Publications
Mr. P.V. Vignesh, Ms. Aparajeethaa and Ms. Gangupuram Navyasri (from left to right) of Batch 2020 – 2024 presently in their final year of B. Tech Aerospace Engineering has successfully completed their internship at Boeing India Private Limited and were offered full time job based on their performance during the internship.
|YEAR||RANK||B.TECH AEROSPACE ENGINEERING|
|2019-2020||I||16103021||SHEEBA RATHINA SELVI E|
|II||16103055||UDHAYA KUMAR S|
|II||18103096||RISHI SUHAS KARANDIKAR|
|2022-2023||I||19103015||POOJA P J|
|II||19103022||DESAI NIYATI DIVYESHBHAI|
|III||19103058||KARISHMA SREE SAI|
GATE 2022 RANK HOLDERS | FEBRUARY 2022
School of Aeronautical Sciences congratulates B.Tech Aerospace Engineering students who secured All India Rank of 38 and 59 in GATE 2022 conducted by IIT, Kharagpur.
HANA BANK SCHOLARSHIP | 17th December 2021
The Office of Student Affairs in collaboration with the Consulate General of the Republic of Korea and Hana Bank organized a global scholarship awards ceremony on 17th December 2021. The award of 500 USD was awarded to 6 students from the B.Tech Aerospace Engineering by Mr. Young Seup Kwon, Consul General, Consulate of Republic of Korea, Chennai and Mr. Dae Ki Hong, Managing Director of KEB Hana Bank, Chennai.
- Ms. Yanamandra Shree Chandra, B.Tech – Year III (Batch: 2019 – 2023)
- Ms. Hannah Addakula, B.Tech – Year II (Batch: 2020 – 2024)
- Mr. S. Haginilaathan, B.Tech – Year II (Batch: 2020 – 2024)
- Ms. Sai Anjani Sreeja, B.Tech – Year II (Batch: 2020 – 2024)
- Mr. Pragatheesh, B.Tech – Year II (Batch: 2020 – 2024)
- Ms. Bindu B, B.Tech – Year II (Batch: 2020 – 2024)
FIRST PLACE IN NATIONAL LEVEL RC MODELING COMPETITION | 6th – 9th April 2021
Vishnuvardhan Reddy from B.Tech Aerospace Engineering (Batch: 2019 – 2023) won the 1st place in National level RC modeling competition held at PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore between 6th – 9th April 2021.
ENTRY INTO ASIA BOOK OF RECORDS | 3rd January 2021
S. Harshaa from B.Tech Aerospace Engineering (Batch: 2019 – 2023) entered into ASIA BOOK OF RECORDS for participating in Diamond Yoga Pose for 5 minutes on the virtual platform organized by V. Vision, India
Every year, our students from School of Aeronautical Sciences perform well in GATE conducted by IIT for postgraduate studies @IIT's in Aerospace Engineering. In the year 2021 15 students passed the minimum cut-off marks set by IIT and among these qualified students, 3 students obtained All India Ranking (AIR) below 100. We appreciate all the students for this achievement and wish them all success in their future endeavors.
JAIHIND 1S OFFICIALLY TITLED "LIGHTEST MICRO SATELLITE"
KJ Harikrishnan, P Amarnath, G Sudhi and T Giri Prasad from second year launched World’s Lightest Satellite Jaihind 1S from NASA facility and was awarded by India Book of Records on 10th September 2018. The team was mentored by Mr.G.Dinesh Kumar, Assistant Professor, School of Aeronautical Sciences, HITS.
JHATAYU FLYING BIKE
JHATAYU is a crowd funded, student start-up company registered in MSME through HTBI & HEIC, HITS. JHATAYU Flying Bike as a design concept was awarded by SAE INDIA at the International Two Wheeler Conference at Bangalore on 5 August 2017 by Mr. Javaji Munirathinam, SAE INDIA Aerospace Board Chairman and Mr. C. Prakash, Training & Development Specialist, Product Development Division Ashok Leyland, India. The Institute of Aeronautics Astronautics and Aviation had the privilege of Dr. Micheale Barratt, Astronaut, NASA, USA award the “Best Innovation” title to JHATAYU and the “Best International Mentor” to its mentor cum supervisor Mr. C. S. Karunakaran at IIT Guwahati on 1 September 2018. JHATAYU Flying Bike was formed by a team of 33 under graduate students under the mentorship of Mr. C. S. Karunakaran, Assistant Professor, School of Aeronautical Sciences, HITS. This ingenious start-up is now touted as Asia’s first flying two- wheeler bike prototype.
The start-up had built an unmanned version of its flying vehicle prototype and successfully flight tested on 27 th October 2018 at HITS. The start-up has applied for its patent and is planning to raise funds for its manned version through industry partnership. The India Book of Records recognized this achievement and conferred “India’s First Two Wheeler Bike” title on JHATAYU. The start-up is planning to apply for Asian certifications to stake their claim for being the Asia’s First Flying Two Wheeler Bike.
Team “ASTRA” participated in SAE Aero Design West Competition in Advanced class 2017 at Texas, USA on 28th to 30th March 2017 and came 5th position in Flight summary and 21st in the world (mentored by Prof. Dr. Dalbir Singh)
Team “DIREWOLVES” participated in SAE Aero Design East Competition in Advanced class at Van Nuys, USA on 24th to 26th April 2015 and came 16th place out of 65 Teams. (mentored by Asst. Prof. Dinesh Kumar.)
Curriculum & Syllabus
- Satellite Technology